Manifesto, Manifestoed, Manifestoing: Research

Dogma 95

The Dogma 95 manifesto was founded in the 90’s in Copenhagen. Directors Lars Von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg are amongst the more prolific directors who are part of this manifesto. The goal of this manifesto is to avoid ”certain tendencies” that cinema has today, the way in which this group of certain directors avoid these tendencies can be found when looking at the ‘The Vow Of Chastity’ which is essentially a separate part of the manifesto itself, it is a section of the manifesto that lists all of the rules set and drawn up by the Dogma 95 manifesto.

‘The Vow Of Chastity’

  1. Shooting must be done on location. Props and sets must not be brought in (if a particular prop is necessary for the story, a location must be chosen where this prop is to be found).
  2. The sound must never be produced apart from the images or vice versa. (Music must not be used unless it occurs where the scene is being shot.)
  3. The camera must be hand-held. Any movement or immobility attainable in the hand is permitted.
  4. The film must be in colour. Special lighting is not acceptable. (If there is too little light for exposure the scene must be cut or a single lamp be attached to the camera.)
  5. Optical work and filters are forbidden.
  6. The film must not contain superficial action. (Murders, weapons, etc. must not occur.)
  7. Temporal and geographical alienation are forbidden. (That is to say that the film takes place here and now.)
  8. Genre movies are not acceptable.
  9. The film format must be Academy 35 mm.
  10. The director must not be credited

The ‘supreme goal’ for directors following the manifesto is to ‘force the truth out of their characters and settings’. To ‘refrain from personal taste’ and no longer consider themselves and ‘artist’.

Futurist Manifesto

Futurism was an international art movement founded in Italy in 1909 it is a ‘refreshing contrast to the weepy sentimentalism of Romanticism’. Futurists enjoy modern life and embrace technology, rather than enjoying the comforts of their modern life and ‘denouncing the forces that make them possible’ futurists choose not to attack modern technology.

*The Futurist Manifesto* F.T. Marinetti

Marinetti ‘stressed the liberation of language through his destruction of grammatical structures’. He wrote many manifestos throughout his life but ‘The Founding and manifesto of Futurism’ is his most prominent. ‘It detailed his call for aggression, deprecation of history, glorification of war as “the world’s only hygiene”<!– ws:start:WikiTextRefRule:2:Marinetti, Filippo. Marinetti; Selected Writings. United States and Toronto, Canada: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Inc., 1972. Print. 42. –>[1] , and the restoration of “Latin machismo” or “scorn for women.”

The manifesto sparked a reaction from feminist futurist and artist, Valentine de Saint Point, she addressed the fact that women were indeed involved in this manifesto, even though it seemed that ‘there must’ve been a ‘no girls allowed sign hammered to the door of the futurists headquarters’.Saint-Point created the *Manifesto of futurist women* in 1912 in response to Marinetti’s own manifesto.She then went on to make the *Futurist manifesto of lust* a year later. This manifesto addresses a more personal look into her views on feminist matters. <!– ws:start:WikiTextRefRule:3:Marinetti. 18. –>


When looking at the manifestos of both Marinetti and Saint point, I can understand that their aim was to present their views in a way that would solidify their own identity. Saint point expressed her views through her manifestos, and in the fusion of the arts that she was involved in, in turn expressing her identity. Furthermore, when looking at the Dogma 95 manifesto, it is clear that the more modern manifestos focus on technicality and processes, and this in fact eliminates any personal/moral views or practices that people like Marinetti and Saint-Point were trying to achieve and communicate. In turn, this communicates their own message, their manifesto.The technicalities and aesthetic achieved in films belonging to the Dogma 95 manifestos are created to force the truth and meaning out of them, they are open to different views and feelings from the spectators.

With this in mind I want to incorporate some of my own personal views into my manifesto, when looking at my filming style.The technicalities of my manifesto for example, not using colour or sound etc. will translate a less obvious message to my audience.More personal aspects of my manifesto, that translate my views and messages more clearly for example, filming characters without makeup, will create a balance between the obvious and the un obvious, that I believe all film makers should work with.



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